[64], Factors that contribute to reduced head weight include: growth in the compacted soils that result from no-till farming practices, drought, waterlogging, insect and disease incidence, and shading and nutrient stress caused by weeds. Recent estimates indicate Africa has 1 00,000 includes broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, kale, ha planted with head cabbage [9]. odoriferum, Pseudomonas cichorii (bacterial blight of endive), Pseudomonas viridiflava (bacterial leaf blight of tomato), Pythium myriotylum (brown rot of groundnut), Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (internal cork disease of sweet potato), Bacillus polymyxa (bacterial: tomato seedling blight), Meloidogyne graminicola (rice root knot nematode), Mycosphaerella tassiana (antagonist of Botrytis cinerea), Pseudomonas fluorescens (pink eye: potato), Serratia liquefaciens (insect pathogen (mainly orthopterans)), Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant), Trichoderma harzianum (hyperparasite of Rhizoctonia solani), Alternaria alternata (alternaria leaf spot), Barypeithes pellucidus (juniper root weevil), Bemisia tabaci (MEAM1) (silverleaf whitefly), Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus (cabbage stem weevil), Ceutorhynchus pleurostigma (turnip gall weevil), Chrysodeixis agnata (three-spotted plusia), Evergestis forficalis (crucifer, caterpillar), Gibberella intricans (damping-off of safflower), Lacanobia oleracea (bright-line brown-eye moth), Pemphigus populitransversus (poplar petiolegall aphid), Phlogophora meticulosa (angle shades moth), Phyllotreta nemorum (striped flea beetle), Phytophthora drechsleri (watermelon fruit rot), Pratylenchus neglectus (nematode, California meadow), Spilarctia obliqua (common hairy caterpillar). Background: Cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. For other uses, see, Leafy vegetable in the flowering plant family Brassicaceae, A whole white cabbage and a cross section. Brassica oleracea var. Download all free or royalty-free photos and vectors. These heads were stored for 5 months at 2°C and 90% RH. Several other cruciferous vegetables (sometimes known as cole crops[2]) are cultivars of B. oleracea, including broccoli, collard greens, brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and sprouting broccoli. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. 60cm. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. The latter toxin has been traced to pre-made, packaged coleslaw mixes, while the spores were found on whole cabbages that were otherwise acceptable in appearance. acephala) is a member of the genus Brassica and the mustard family, Brassicaceae. It is hardy to zone (UK) 8 and is not frost tender. Grow Brassica oleracea capitata group in moist but well-drained soil in full sun to shade. This original species evolved over thousands of years into those seen today, as selection resulted in cultivars having different characteristics, such as large heads for cabbage, large leaves for kale and thick stems with flower buds for broccoli. gongylodes (Gongylodes group), belonging to the family Cruciferae (Brassicaceae), is a biennial, herbaceous vegetable crop grown as an annual that produces a swollen, bulb-like stem. capitata f. alba" The following 96 files are in this category, out of 96 total. Brassica oleracea var. The genetic diversity of 20 cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Cabbage can be stored the longest at −1 to 2 °C (30 to 36 °F) with a humidity of 90–100 percent; these conditions will result in up to six months of longevity. Cabbage weights generally range from 500 to 1,000 grams (1 to 2 lb). [14] Closer spacing reduces the resources available to each plant (especially the amount of light) and increases the time taken to reach maturity. Several other cruciferous vegetables (sometimes known as cole crops ) are cultivars of B. oleracea, including broccoli, collard greens, brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and sprouting broccoli. Description; Technical Info; Shipping! An early January King type that matures from October to February. [2], Many shapes, colors and leaf textures are found in various cultivated varieties of cabbage. capitata var. Removing the outer leaves has restored a marketable appearance to the two heads on the left. Basic research on cabbage phytochemicals is ongoing to discern if certain cabbage compounds may affect health or have potential for anti-disease effects, such as sulforaphane and other glucosinolates. Stabljika je jednostavna, uspravna, nerazgranata, naraste do 60 cm visine no u fazi cvatnje naraste i do 2 metra. [84] The ancient Roman, Pliny the Elder, described both culinary and medicinal properties of the vegetable. Two of the six stamens have shorter filaments. [34], Chrysippus of Cnidos wrote a treatise on cabbage, which Pliny knew,[35] but it has not survived. capitata, including sub.var. [62], Due to its high level of nutrient requirements, cabbage is prone to nutrient deficiencies, including boron, calcium, phosphorus and potassium. capitata L. Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) Definition Brassica leaf vegetable that is eaten fresh, cooked, and fermented as sau - erkraut (white or red cabbage) or kimchee (napa cabbage). The transition from a juvenile to adult state happens when the stem diameter is about 6 mm (1⁄4 in). Outbreaks Associated with Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce. [90] Shigella species are able to survive in shredded cabbage. The green colour is lost during storage. Different varieties prefer different soil types, ranging from lighter sand to heavier clay, but all prefer fertile ground with a pH between 6.0 and 6.8. The plant is self-fertile. Cabbage is stored primarily for processing or is retailed when fresh market cabbage is unavailable. Product: Price (VAT not payable) Quantity: 10g: £1.90: 25g: £2.95: 50g: £5.45: 100g: £10.10: 250g: £23.35: 500g: £43.20: Keep package breakdown as ordered. Cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads. Brassica oleracea var. Kupus (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Revised continuously. Plants have root systems that are fibrous and shallow. Brassica oleracea subsp. Brassica oleracea var. [24] Savoy cabbages are usually used in salads, while smooth-leaf types are utilized for both market sales and processing. capitata Taxonomy ID: 3716 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid3716) current name. [15] Both hand and mechanical harvesting are used, with hand-harvesting generally used for cabbages destined for market sales. grown as field crop. sabauda[2] or var. in field crop. Vernalization allows the plant to grow to an adequate size before flowering. [56] Growers normally place plants 30 to 61 cm (12 to 24 in) apart. capitata Gloria F1 - 1.jpg 1,200 × 1,600; 439 KB [13] Heads average between 0.5 and 4 kg (1 and 8 lb), with fast-growing, earlier-maturing varieties producing smaller heads. Kohlrabi, Brassica oleracea var. Abstract The Brassica (Brassicaceae) family includes cruciferous vegetables like cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower and mustards. [52], Jacques Cartier first brought cabbage to the Americas in 1541–42, and it was probably planted by the early English colonists, despite the lack of written evidence of its existence there until the mid-17th century. This plant has a mild fragrance. rapa). The Ancient Greeks recommended consuming the vegetable as a laxative,[47] and used cabbage juice as an antidote for mushroom poisoning,[83] for eye salves, and for liniments for bruises. Sci. phytochemical s creening was ca rried on the leaves extracts of Brassica oleracea L. var. The Greeks were convinced that cabbages and grapevines were inimical, and that cabbage planted too near the vine would impart its unwelcome odor to the grapes; this Mediterranean sense of antipathy survives today.[36]. [33] Ptolemaic Egyptians knew the cole crops as gramb, under the influence of Greek krambe, which had been a familiar plant to the Macedonian antecedents of the Ptolemies. There are several cultivar groups of cabbage, each including many cultivars: Some sources only delineate three cultivars: savoy, red and white, with spring greens and green cabbage being subsumed under the last. [75] In India and Ethiopia, cabbage is often included in spicy salads and braises. oleracea), and belongs to the "cole crops" or brassicas, meaning it is closely related to broccoli and cauliflower (var. These are high quality heads because of their short core, density and tender texture. gemmifera); and Savoy cabbage (var. conglutinans (cabbage fusarium wilt), Hyaloperonospora parasitica (downy mildew), Liriomyza brassicae (serpentine leafminer), Meloidogyne ethiopica (Root-knot nematode), Microtheca ochroloma (yellowmargined leaf beetle), Mycosphaerella brassicicola (cabbage ring-spot), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. capitata L. or Brassica oleracea Red Cabbage and White/Green Cabbage Groups. [18], There are several Guinness Book of World Records entries related to cabbage. [66], Planting near other members of the cabbage family, or where these plants have been placed in previous years, can prompt the spread of pests and disease. alba (Capitata Group) 'Gallican' (PBR) from the RHS [15], Cabbage has been selectively bred for head weight and morphological characteristics, frost hardiness, fast growth and storage ability. A cabbage plant is a large bud that forms into a head consisting of overlapping leaves surrounded by a rosette of outer leaves positioned closer to the ground. Full Sun. Manuscript illuminations show the prominence of cabbage in the cuisine of the High Middle Ages,[24] and cabbage seeds feature among the seed list of purchases for the use of King John II of France when captive in England in 1360,[45] but cabbages were also a familiar staple of the poor: in the lean year of 1420 the "Bourgeois of Paris" noted that "poor people ate no bread, nothing but cabbages and turnips and such dishes, without any bread or salt". [22], Although cabbage has an extensive history,[23] it is difficult to trace its exact origins owing to the many varieties of leafy greens classified as "brassicas". The simplest options include eating the vegetable raw or steaming it, though many cuisines pickle, stew, sautée or braise cabbage. Chilling and clubroot disease cause severe losses of yields and quality in this species, as well as in other Brassicaceae crops. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. capitata (BRSOL) Plants perform best when grown in well-drained soil in a location that receives full sun. Excessive consumption of cabbage may lead to increased intestinal gas which causes bloating and flatulence due to the trisaccharide raffinose, which the human small intestine cannot digest, but is digested by bacteria in the large intestine. campestris (black rot), Xanthomonas campestris pv. [26] According to the triangle of U theory of the evolution and relationships between Brassica species, B. oleracea and other closely related kale vegetables (cabbages, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower) represent one of three ancestral lines from which all other brassicas originated. [76] In the United States, cabbage is used primarily for the production of coleslaw, followed by market use and sauerkraut production. These include cabbage bark or cabbage tree (a member of the genus Andira) and cabbage palms, which include several genera of palms such as Mauritia, Roystonea oleracea, Acrocomia and Euterpe oenocarpus. Because of its high levels of flavonoids and anthocyanins, cabbage has long been used as a herbal medicine. They are both seedborne and airborne, and typically propagate from spores in infected plant debris left on the soil surface for up to twelve weeks after harvest. In pepper spot, tiny black spots occur on the areas between the veins, which can increase during storage. [4], "Cabbage" was originally used to refer to multiple forms of B. oleracea, including those with loose or non-existent heads. oleracea, also called colewort or field cabbage. [64] The caterpillar stage of the "small cabbage white butterfly" (Pieris rapae), commonly known in the United States as the "imported cabbage worm", is a major cabbage pest in most countries. capitata L.) is one of the most widely grown and important vegetable crops of Brassicaceae family consumed worldwide. Membrum familiae Brassicacearum, colitur in toto ferme orbe terrarum.Varietas magna est huius speciei, sed ferme omnes ad edendum sunt idoneae. Smooth-leafed, firm-headed green cabbages are the most common, with smooth-leafed purple cabbages and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages of both colours being rarer. Achatina fulica (giant African land snail), Agrotis exclamationis (moth, heart and dart), Beet western yellows virus (turnip (mild) yellows), Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas), Cauliflower mosaic virus (cauliflower mosaic), Chenopodium murale (nettleleaf goosefoot), Crocidolomia pavonana (large cabbage-heart caterpillar), Evergestis rimosalis (cross-striped cabbageworm), Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips), Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. List of Lepidoptera that feed on Brassica, "Growing broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage and other cole crops in Wisconsin", "Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists), Cabbages and other brassicas, 2018", "Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists), Cabbages and other brassicas, 2017", "Corriher's Compendium of Ingredients and Cooking Problems", "USDA database table for raw cabbage per 100 g", "A novel mechanism of indole-3-carbinol effects on breast carcinogenesis involves induction of Cdc25A degradation", "Chapter IV. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Water-soluble anthocyanin pigments are important ingredients in health-improving supplements and valuable for the food industry. [46] French naturalist Jean Ruel made what is considered the first explicit mention of head cabbage in his 1536 botanical treatise De Natura Stirpium, referring to it as capucos coles ("head-coles"). 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