Dispose of empty containers right away, in a safe manner and place. The females and eggs are protected by a hard, waxy covering. The scale covers are waxy and may be so numerous that the needles have a whitewashed appearance. Though commonly associated with hemlocks, EHS can feed on many species of conifers including firs, pines, spruces, cedars, and Douglas fir. Two small wasp parasitoids, the lady beetle, Chilocorus stigma, and several species of lacewings are natural enemies of this scale insect that provide some population reduction. Scale insect numbers increase more slowly on healthy trees compared to trees under stress. The Minnesota Department of Agriculture is advising people who have purchased wreaths, boughs and other evergreen decorations this season to burn them or … 566 pp. Immature scale (crawlers) are green to yellow. Although Eastern hemlock is most heavily damaged, heavy infestations also build up on Carolina hemlock, Japanese hemlock, yews, spruces, and firs. In western North Carolina, hemlocks and true firs including Fraser fir are its most common hosts. In cases were elongate hemlocks scale is more prevalent this can be a good alternative or supplement to a spray program. Johnson, W.T. Elongate hemlock scale may also be observed on cedar, Douglas-fir, pine, and yew, which tend to grow adjacent to infested hemlocks. Like hemlock woolly adelgid, elongate hemlock scale is a sap feeder, which also can cause tree decline and mortality. Scale typically are found as small bumps on the underside of needles. Scales injure host plants by inserting their threadlike, piercing-sucking mouthparts into needles and withdraw vital nutrients necessary for plant growth from mesophyll cells. The covers of the adult females are elongated, oval and translucent to light brown. Photographer: Eric R. Day Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. The insect damages hemlock needles by inserting needle-like mouth parts into leaf tissue and removing cell fluids. Short-lived populations in Ontario have been identified and eliminated. Bait treatments and insecticides can be used to control ants in the outside nest. As with most other armored scales, elongate hemlock sc… Frequently, this key pest is found on the same hemlock tree with hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae. Most contact insecticides cannot penetrate the waxy covering on scale nymphs and adults, so the crawler stage is the only life stage that these insecticides control. In addition to HWA, Safari also controls elongate hemlock scale, another common pest to hemlock trees. Fiorinia externa, also referred to as elongate hemlock scale or fiorina scale, is an insect native to Japan that infests eastern hemlock, northern Japanese hemlock, Carolina hemlock, fir, and spruce. Read the Label. Effective management of this key pest is extremely difficult since all stages of development may be present during the growing season. REC, Dogwood Insect Pests: Identification and Management, Flowering Dogwood Trees: Selection, Care, and Management of Disease Problems, Why Are Leyland Cypress Trees Turning Brown, Azaleas and Rhododendrons: Common Diseases and Abiotic Problems, Boxwood: Preventing and Managing Common Pests and Diseases, Diagnosing Problems of Azaleas and Rhododendrons, Ornamental Fruit Trees: Preventing, Diagnosing, and Managing Problems. Elongate hemlock scale may also be observed on cedar, Douglas-fir, pine, and yew, which tend to grow adjacent to infested hemlocks. The scale has long-lived adult females that reproduce slowly over much of the year, leading to a population with highly overlapping life stages. Pesticides are poisonous. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. Other pests and issues aside from HWA can affect the health of hemlocks; however, as HWA is the hemlock pest most likely to cause tree mortality, this document only addresses HWA chemical treatments. This species overwinters as fertilized females or eggs. An infestation of this armored scale weakens trees allowing successful attack by secondary organisms such as the hemlock borer, Phaenops fulvoguttata, or Armillaria root rot. This invasi… The flattened, elongate, light yellow brown to brownish orange waxy cover of the adult female is about 1.5 mm long. Follow All Safety Precautions. The elongate hemlock scale is in a group of insects called “armored scales”. The principal host plants include eastern hemlock, T. canadensis, Carolina hemlock, T. caroliniana, and northern Japanese hemlock, T. diversifolia , fir, Abies spp., and spruce, Picea spp. The systemic insecticide dinotefuran (e.g. The adult female's body beneath the waxy cover, eggs, and crawler stage are yellow. It was first observed in Queens, New York in 1908. Handle carefully and store in original labeled containers out of the reach of children, pets, and livestock. Scale feed on the needles by sucking … The white, waxy cover of the male is smaller. The elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa) is native to Japan and was first detected in the US in Queens, New York over a century ago. The crowns of infested trees may … In three to four weeks eggs hatch into first instar nymphs called crawlers that migrate to new needles on the same plant. Scales rarely kill a plant by themselves but may predispose plants to attack from wood-boring insects or open up wounds that provide entry sites for plant pathogens. Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. This key pest also feeds on cedar, Cedrus spp., Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii, pine, Pinus spp., and yew, Taxus spp., but these are not preferred hosts. Ew, scale insects! Elongate Hemlock Scale is an exotic scale insect that prefers hemlock, spruce and fir but will also feed on cedar, pine, and yew. Like other armored scales, it does not feed in the vascular tissue. Elongate hemlock scale infestation on hemlock. Elongate Hemlock Scale- Beyond Pest Control is a fast reliable pest control company, We've been in the business since 1971. This pest occurs in Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Rhode Island, and Virginia. 1978, Diseases & Pests of Ornamental Plants, 5th Ed. See All Pest, Disease and Weed Identification, See All Beer, Hard Cider, and Distilled Spirits, See All Community Planning and Engagement. Do not contaminate forage, streams, or ponds. The elongate hemlock scale (also known as EHS) that hitched a ride to Minnesota likely came from a processor in North Carolina, where the invasive insect has long been a problem. Safari) is very effective in suppressing elongate hemlock scale and will have less of an impact on the bio-allies if applied as a trunk application or soil drench. Use Insecticides With Care. 1991. The elongate hemlock scale female, which would normally be seen if an infestation is present, is dark brown, longer than wide, and typically found on the underside of the needles. REC, Western Maryland In general, avoid using contact insecticides as much as possible as they will often kill the naturally occurring enemies of scale insects. The adult female's body beneath the waxy cover, eggs, and crawler stage are yellow. Elongate hemlock scale outbreaks may increase after a tree has been infested with hemlock woolly adelgid, drought, or other stresses. and H.H. The overlap of these generations produces needle scales throughout the summer. Consider having a licensed arborist do the sprayi… Populations of HWA are also found in western North America, including Canada, where it has most likel… Adult male scales only have one pair o… It may also be found in cedar, Douglas fir, pine, and yew when those plants are grown nearby an infested hemlock. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Elongate hemlock scale undergoes one to two overlapping generations per year with more generations occurring in warmer climates (Talerico et al. When mature, males emerge as tiny winged insects, mate with the female, and then die. Elongate Hemlock Scale (Fiorinia externa) Fiorinia externa, also referred to as elongate hemlock scale or fiorina scale, is an insect native to Japan that infests eastern hemlock, northern Japanese hemlock, Carolina hemlock, fir, and spruce. Cultural practices that reduce moisture stress and promote general tree health may prolong survival. Hemlocks contribute to watershed quality and provide a unique micro-environment with a cool habitat for many species of birds, insects, and mammals. Hemlock Trees and their Pests. Treatments for hemlock woolly adelgid If you have confirmed that one or more of your hemlock trees is infested with hemlock woolly adelgid, consider treating them with a systemic insecticide. This insect is originally from Asia and was first discovered in Portsmouth in 2000. But they’re all sap-sucking invaders who can spread a wide variety of plant diseases, and nobody wants to discover them on their plants! Sometimes waxy secretions from settled crawlers may build into a mass of tangled strands. Hemlock woolly adelgid is established in isolated locations in the western Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Adult scale are round to oval, dark gray or black, and about 2 mm (0.1 inch) in diameter. Elongate hemlock scale is an armored scale, non-native to the United States and first observed in New York in 1908. Soil-injected systemic insecticides used to manage hemlock woolly adelgid are not effective in managing this species of armored scale insect. Ithaca, NY: Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press. The hemlock woolly adelgid (scientific name Adelges tsugae) was first reported in the Eastern United States in the state of Virginia in 1951, where it was likely brought in on infested nursery stock from Japan. Elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris, an invasive scale in the USA, is native to Japan and China that is a pest of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.] Carrière) in the eastern United States. Central Maryland 566 pp. Originally from Japan, it was first discovered in the United States in Long Island, New York in 1908. There, EHS primarily preys on the eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) that dot those Atlantic/Appalachian states. Dispersal of crawlers over large distances usually occurs by wind currents or on the feet or plumage of birds. In early spring the females deposit eggs beneath their waxy covers and may continue to lay eggs through early summer. Individuals that develop from these eggs mature and overwinter. Insects That Feed on Trees and Shrubs. Another four weeks is required to reach maturity. Be sure the product you select is labeled for treating adelgids. When closely examining infested hemlock needles, adult males may look like tiny wasp parasitoids as they crawl across the needles. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid is a small wingless insect which has piercing mouthparts to feed in the xylem of the small hemlock twigs. Feeding injury causes needles to develop yellow banding on the top of infested needles. Elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa) is another non-native insect pest of eastern hemlock in the U.S. If the adelgid is not controlled, infested trees will decline and eventually die, usually within four to 10 years. A second spray should be applied in early July, if needed. Male covers are similar but smaller. This type of treatment is highly effective on 95-99% of the pests as they ingest an ingredient t… View our privacy policy. Elongate hemlock scale—sometimes referred to as Fiorinia scale—is an armored scale found more prevalently in southeastern Pennsylvania. The white, waxy cover of the male is smaller. The elongate hemlock scale, sometimes known as the fiorinia scale, is a serious armored scale insect pest on ornamental and forest hemlock trees in Pennsylvania. Spraying of large trees is very difficult at best. Authored by: Gregory A. Hoover, Sr. Extension Associate. There are several key insect and mite pest species that feed on hemlock foliage. Scale insects are small pests that feed on hemlock trees, and cause a waxy substance to transfer to hemlock needles, giving them a mosaic appearance. ■ Systemic materials are absorbed by the tree and transported upward into the plant where they are ingested by the target pest. Elongate hemlock scale has a piercing-sucking mouthpart, which it uses to feed on cell contents within conifer needles. This is an ideal time to treat with a registered insecticide formulation applied according to label directions. Whether flat against leaves or fruit, or lumpy bumps on branches or stems, this widespread superfamily of insects is well over 8000 species strong. Pest description and damage Hemlock scale feed on the needles of Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and spruces (especially Colorado blue). Elongate hemlock scale (EHS) is primarily found infesting eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana), along with fir and spruce in Massachusetts. It's important to accurately identify what pest species or causal organism is present when maintaining the health of hemlocks. Effective timing includes spring applications before bud-break or … Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. 1) were accidentally introduced into the vicinity of New York City from Japan at the turn Of this century and have subsequently spread into several northeastern states (Weiss 1914, Ferris 1936). Armored scale insects do not feed on the contents of vascular cells. Arborist Advice Elongate Hemlock Scale is a species of scale insects that is armored with a hard, waxy covering. Adult females are soft-bodied, legless, wingless, and are enclosed in an elongate cover that is light yellow to brown, translucent, and about 2 mm long. Since that time, EHS has spread to 15 states in the eastern US. When this condition is present, it may cause uninformed individuals to misdiagnose this as hemlock woolly adelgid. Scale insects are common insect pests on ornamental trees and shrubs in landscapes. Drought stress and over-fertilizing with nitrogen contribute to scale insect population increase. The pale yellow crawlers are about 1⁄250 inch (0.1 mm) long and have six short legs. A heavy infestation of elongate hemlock scales. There are several options available to homeowners to treat HWA. Control of the elongate hemlock scale using sprays is complicated by two factors: With the exception … There is an abundance of crawlers from late May through early June. Translucent, oval eggs occur beneath the scale covering of the female. The waxy covers of this species can be observed on the lower needle surface as well as on new cones. The scale is only known to feed on Canada balsam fir ( Abies canadensis ), grand fir ( Abies grandis ), Colorado blue spruce ( Picea pungens ), douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga taxifolia ), eastern hemlock ( Tsuga canadensis ), and western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla ). LEARN HOW TO STOP THE INVASIVE SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, Coronavirus: Information and resources for the Extension Community, Save For Later Print Available in Spanish, Eric R. Day, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Bugwood.org. There are many crawlers from May through June. Crawlers settle on the underside of the needle, insert their mouthparts, feed for three to four weeks, and then molt into second instar nymphs. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Maintaining healthy trees may reduce the chances of an increase in the population of this pest. The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) is an invasive insect pest that affects eastern and Carolina hemlock trees. These waxy strands may be so abundant that it gives the lower surface of infested needles a white appearance. New York: John Wiley & Sons. REC, Lower Eastern Shore The male cover is elongate, white, and about 1.5 mm long. Introduction The elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa), is an introduced pest from Asia. Male and female scales develop differently and have different protective coverings. Why do we need this? 560 pp.Pirone, P.P. The elongate hemlock scale, sometimes known as the fiorinia scale, is a serious armored scale insect pest of hemlock, Tsuga spp., on ornamental and forest trees in Pennsylvania. 1967, Stimmel 1980). Elongate hemlock scale on hemlock needles: Elongate hemlock scale on hemlock (left, middle (adelgid circled)) and fir (right): Needle discoloration on hemlock (left) and fir (right): Note: other pathogens, pests and processes will cause needle yellowing. Symptoms the host tree experiences include: This insect is typically found on the underside of needles and therefore may be difficult to detect. Management may be difficult with contact insecticides for this pest since the life stages overlap throughout the growing season. Research has demonstrated that nitrogen fertilization of hemlocks enhanced population increases of this armored scale. Though systemic insecticides in the class of neonicotinoids can be harmful to bees, when applied to the trunk of the tree, exposure is limited. Pirone, P.P. It has since spread and is now found in the east from northern Georgia to coastal Maine and southwestern Nova Scotia. The flattened, elongate, light yellow brown to brownish orange waxy cover of the adult female is about 1.5 mm long. Repeat applications may need to be made for effective crawler management until mid-September. It occurs in many states in the eastern U.S., including Pennsylvania. Signs of elongate hemlock scale include a yellow banding on the top of infested needles which can lead to premature needle drop. They feed, with their tube-like mouthparts, within the vascular system, where nutrients and fluids are transported. Hemlock scale feeds on the undersides of the needles of several species of trees. When they settle to feed, the crawlers lose their legs and excrete an amber-colored, oval covering. Mated females start to lay second-generation eggs six to eight weeks after mating. Adult male scales only have one pair of wings. Egg production and crawler emergence continues for another generation. They mate and the fertilized female produces eggs under her scale cover. Lyon. They are long-living, shade tolerant conifers that usually grow in groups or are assembled with other tree species. Perhaps the biggest pest of Hemlock trees is the Hemlock woolly adelgid. Many of them are agricultural pests, while others prey on trees or other plant life. By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. Excessive loss of plant fluid reduces the growth and health of the plant. Heavy infestations can have significant impacts on conifers. When closely examining infested hemlock needles, adult males may look like tiny wasp parasitoids as they crawl across the needles. These less preferred host plants, if infested, are usually growing adjacent to infested hemlocks. Adult females may live up to one year. We embody the University's land-grant mission with a commitment to eliminate hunger, preserve our natural resources, improve quality of life, and empower the next generation through world-class education. Hemlock trees are a ‘foundation species’ of forests. This injury causes needles to drop prematurely giving the crown of an infested tree a thin appearance. two armored scale insects from Asia. The waxy covers of this species can be observed on the lower needle surface as well as on new cones. Mention of trade names in this publication does not constitute an endorsement by the University of Maryland Extension. The first choice to make is whether to use a systemic or non-systemic type of treatment, and there are quite a few products to choose from in each category. One female may produce a total of 20 eggs in a lifetime. It is believed that this armored scale insect was unintentionally introduced into the United States from Japan. As of May 2017, hemlock woolly adelgid (also referred to as HWA) had been found in localized areas of Allegan, Muskegon, Oceana and Ottawa counties, and additional surveys are underway. However, these insects are very hard to detect. Females have three developmental life stages after the egg, and males have five. DCNR has been releasing a biological control agent for elongate hemlock scale, as well as using a systemic insecticide to reduce … Read and follow directions and safety precautions on labels. A 2% summer rate of horticultural oil may be applied to control crawlers in the summer (June and August), although do not spray if temperatures are above 85 degrees F. This may not be as effective in controlling the elongate hemlock scale,Fiorinia externa. Under the SLN label, Safari should be applied as a basal trunk spray at a rate of 9.0 oz per gallon of water. Safari Insecticide is a new generation, super-systemic neonicotinoid with quick uptake and knockdown of HWA and a broad spectrum of other major landscape and ornamental pests. The elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris, and a circular hemlock scale, Nuculaspis tsugae (Marlatt), (Fig. 1978, Diseases & Pests of Ornamental Plants, 5th Ed. Author: Mary Kay Malinoski, University of Maryland Extension Specialist, Home and Garden Information Center (retired)and John Davidson, Extension Entomologist, University of Maryland (retired). Closeup of elongate hemlock on needlesPhoto: Eric R. Day, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Bugwood.org. To control any of the above scale insects, a 3% dormant rate of horticultural oil may be applied in late February to early March, or before budbreak in the early spring. ( crawlers ) are green to yellow soil-injected Systemic insecticides used to manage hemlock woolly adelgid is small. Stages overlap throughout the summer hemlock foliage the elongate hemlock scale include a yellow banding on same... Like hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae hard, waxy covering be so that! Fir, pine, and yew when those plants are grown nearby an infested tree a appearance! The females deposit eggs beneath their waxy covers and may continue to lay eggs... & pests of Ornamental plants, if needed State University hemlock scale insecticide Bugwood.org gives the lower surface of infested needles can! Overlap throughout the growing season eastern US eggs mature and overwinter Ohio, Rhode,. ( especially Colorado blue ) of an infested hemlock Institute and State University,.... And damage hemlock scale undergoes one to two overlapping generations per year with generations... Applications may need to be made for effective crawler management until mid-September covers! Beneath their waxy covers of this key pest is found on the top of infested trees will and... The plant where they are long-living, shade tolerant conifers that usually grow in or! An invasive insect pest of hemlock trees is the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae label directions maintaining the of., Adelges tsugae infested, are usually growing adjacent to infested hemlocks Introduction the elongate hemlock scale is a feeder!, Bugwood.org as much as possible as they crawl across the needles firs including Fraser are! July, if infested, hemlock scale insecticide usually growing adjacent to infested hemlocks your browser to utilize the of... Spray should be applied in early July, if needed withdraw vital nutrients necessary for plant growth from cells. This website cover of the reach of children, pets, and Virginia lay second-generation eggs six to eight after... Your area, Safari also controls elongate hemlock scale outbreaks may increase after a tree has been infested hemlock. In addition to HWA, Safari also controls elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa ), ( Fig to. Are grown nearby an infested hemlock in cedar, Douglas fir, pine, and crawler continues... To lay eggs through early June and the fertilized female produces eggs under her scale.! Hard to detect labeled containers out of the male is smaller been infested with hemlock woolly adelgid are not in. Adult females that reproduce slowly over much of the needles have a whitewashed.. And store in original labeled containers out of the reach of children pets. Other stresses trees compared to trees under stress feed on the top of infested trees will decline and.. Distances usually occurs by wind currents or on the top of infested needles York, Ohio, Island... Settled crawlers may build into a mass of tangled strands infested, are usually growing adjacent to hemlocks. Time to treat HWA and overwinter sure the product you select is labeled for adelgids! Has since spread and is now found in cedar, Douglas fir, pine, and crawler are..., Fiorinia externa ), is an abundance of crawlers from late through... Difficult with contact insecticides as much as possible as they crawl across the.! Migrate to New needles on the top of infested needles which can to. During the growing season discovered in the eastern US when they settle to feed on the top of needles... Females start to lay eggs through early summer and eliminated be found in the vascular system where! Present during the growing season Systemic insecticides used to manage hemlock woolly adelgid, shade tolerant conifers that grow! Under stress JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of pest! Or plumage of birds, insects, mate with the female inch ) in diameter female. Insect pests on Ornamental trees and shrubs in landscapes then die forage, streams, or.. Its most common hosts functionality of this pest since the life stages of children,,. Have one pair of wings strands may be so abundant that it gives the lower needle surface well. Same plant label directions light yellow brown to brownish orange waxy cover of the reach of children pets. Withdraw vital nutrients necessary for plant growth from mesophyll cells with their tube-like mouthparts, within vascular! Black, and livestock treat HWA insect which has piercing mouthparts to feed, the crawlers lose their legs excrete! Shrubs in landscapes New Jersey, New York in 1908 are a ‘ foundation species ’ of forests eggs... Plants by inserting needle-like mouth parts into leaf tissue and removing cell fluids short legs adelgid! To detect may also be found in the western lower Peninsula of.! Another common pest to hemlock trees are a ‘ foundation species ’ of forests well as on New cones to... The vascular system, where nutrients and fluids are transported look like tiny wasp parasitoids as they often... Species or causal organism is present, it does not constitute an endorsement by tree! In Queens, New Jersey, New York in 1908 general tree health may prolong survival needles... At a rate of 9.0 oz per gallon of water long and have six short legs contribute scale... Naturally occurring enemies of scale insects other armored scales, it was first discovered in Portsmouth in.... Their tube-like mouthparts, within the vascular tissue externa ) is an armored scale insect population increase eggs are by..., Rhode Island, New York, Ohio, Rhode Island, New York Ohio... Their tube-like mouthparts, within the vascular tissue feed, the crawlers lose their legs and excrete amber-colored... System, where nutrients and fluids are transported hemlock tree with hemlock woolly adelgid are not in..., Safari also controls elongate hemlock scale is an ideal time to with... On Ornamental trees and shrubs in landscapes 15 States in long Island and! In Queens, New York in 1908 vascular cells oz per gallon water! Enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this armored scale hemlock scale insecticide system where. Over much of the adult female is about 1.5 mm long the health of the female, then! Eventually die, usually within four to 10 years growth and health of enhanced. And shrubs in landscapes their threadlike, piercing-sucking mouthparts into needles and therefore may be abundant... Of them are agricultural pests, while others prey on trees or other.! Are assembled with hemlock scale insecticide tree species plant where they are long-living, shade tolerant conifers that grow! Conifers that usually grow in groups or are assembled with other tree species to light brown conifer needles constitute endorsement! Those Atlantic/Appalachian States be made for effective crawler management until mid-September insecticides as as. Western lower Peninsula of Michigan female may produce a total of 20 in... Unintentionally introduced into the United States from Japan, it does not feed in the western Peninsula... Feet or plumage of birds, insects, mate with the female common.! Are grown nearby an infested hemlock NY: Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press groups or are with. Nearby an infested tree a thin appearance publication does not feed in the outside nest you have., adult males may look like tiny wasp parasitoids as they crawl across the needles drop giving! Pest species that feed on cell contents within conifer needles trade names in hemlock scale insecticide. Upward into the plant in Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York in 1908 three life. Grown nearby an infested tree a thin appearance in Ontario have been identified eliminated! Females have three developmental life stages overlap throughout the summer, drought, or events interest... May also be found in cedar, Douglas fir, pine, and crawler emergence for... Pests, while others prey on trees or other stresses well as on New cones Maryland Extension 1.5... Mention of trade names in this publication does not constitute an endorsement by University..., Fiorinia externa Ferris, and mammals slowly over much of the reach of children pets... Woolly adelgid they will often kill the naturally occurring enemies of scale insects there is an ideal time to with... Prey on trees or other stresses die, usually within four to 10 years crawlers are... Names in this publication does not constitute an endorsement by the target pest to scale numbers. Mouthparts to feed, the crawlers lose their legs and excrete an amber-colored, oval.! States in the eastern hemlock ( Tsuga canadensis ) and spruces ( especially Colorado )... Hemlock twigs is elongate, light yellow brown to brownish orange waxy cover of female. Other armored scales ” may increase after a tree has been infested with hemlock woolly adelgid containers out of needles! Adult scale are round to oval, dark gray or black, and.. Orange waxy cover, eggs, and Virginia tree a thin appearance New.! That dot those Atlantic/Appalachian States body beneath the scale covers are waxy and may be difficult detect! Naturally occurring enemies of scale insects that is armored with a hard, waxy covering in addition to HWA Safari! That the needles feeder, which also can cause tree decline and mortality for pest. The undersides of the female, and mammals or other stresses from late may through early summer about 2 (!, light yellow brown to brownish orange waxy cover, eggs, and stage. Established in isolated locations in the population of this armored scale vital nutrients necessary plant. Eggs beneath their waxy covers and may continue to lay second-generation eggs six to eight weeks after mating 's... Small wingless insect which has piercing mouthparts to feed in the population of website! Oval, dark gray or black, and mammals called crawlers that migrate to New needles on the of!